Drangsholt E et al (Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol): The Hypothesis of Circulus Hypoxicus and Its Clinical Relevance in Patients With Methanol Poisoning – An Observational Study of 35 Patients.

Kraut JA et al (N Engl J Med): Toxic Alcohols.


Hovda KE et al (Crit Care Toxicol): Methanol and Formaldehyde (book chapter).

Rulisek J et al (J Crit Care): Cost-effectiveness of hospital treatment and outcomes of acute methanol poisoning during the Czech Republic mass poisoning outbreak.

Zakharov S et al (Annals Intensive Care): Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy in acute methanol poisoning: comparison of clinical effectiveness in mass poisoning outbreaks.

Zakharov S et al (Clin Tox): Efficiency of acidemia correction on intermittent versus continuous hemodialysis in acute methanol poisoning.


Rostrup M et al (PLOS One): The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014

Zakharov S et al (Ann Emerg Med): Use of Out-of-Hospital Ethanol Administration to Improve Outcome in Mass Methanol Outbreaks.

McMartin KE et al (Brit J Clin Pharmacol): Antidotes for poisoning by alcohols that form toxic metabolites


Galvez-Ruiz A et al (Saudi Med J): Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia.

Hassanian-Moghaddam H (J Public Health): Methanol mass poisoning in Iran: role of case finding in outbreak management.

Hovda KE et al (Scand J Clin Lab Invest): A novel bedside diagnostic test for methanol poisoning using dry chemistry for formate.

Zakharov S et al (Clin Tox): Fomepizole versus ethanol in the treatment of acute methanol poisoning: Comparison of clinical effectiveness in a mass poisoning outbreak.

Kraut JA (Clin Tox): Diagnosis of toxic alcohols: limitations of present methods.

Lachance et al (Kidney Int): Prediction and validation of hemodialysis duration in acute methanol poisoning.

Roberts DM et al (Crit Care Med): Recommendations for the role of extracorporeal treatments in the management of acute methanolpoisoning: a systematic review and consensus statement.

Vaneckova M et al (Neuro Endocrin Lett): Imaging findings after methanol intoxication (cohort of 46 patients).

Zakharov S et al (Clin Tox): Long-term visual damage after acute methanol poisonings: Longitudinal cross-sectional study in 50 patients.

Zakharov S et al (Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub): Fluctuations in serum ethanol concentration in the treatment of acute methanol poisoning: a prospective study of 21 patients.

Zakharov S et al (Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol): Is the measurement of serum formate concentration useful in the diagnostics of acute methanol poisoning? A prospective study of 38 patients.


Sklienka P (Prog Transplant): Successful kidney transplant from methanol-intoxicated donors.

Zakharov S et al (Clin Toxicol): Czech mass methanol outbreak 2012: epidemiology, challenges and clinical features.

Zakharov S et al (Kidney Int): Intermittent hemodialysis is superior to continuous veno-venous hemodialysis/hemodiafiltration to eliminate methanol and formate during treatment for methanol poisoning.


Paasma R et al (Clin Toxicol): Risk factors related to poor outcome after methanol poisoning and the relation between outcome and antidotes–a multicenter study.


Lepik KJ et al (Clin Toxicol): Medication errors associated with the use of ethanol and fomepizole as antidotes for methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.

Sanaei-Zadeh H et al (J Med Toxicol): Hyperglycemia is a strong prognostic factor of lethality in methanol poisoning.


Brent J (N Engl J Med): Fomepizole for ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning.

Paasma R et al (BMC Clin Pharmacol): Methanol poisoning and long term sequelae – a six years follow-up after a large methanol outbreak.

Sivilotti ML (Ann Emerg Med): Ethanol: tastes great! Fomepizole: less filling!


Hovda KE & Jacobsen D (Hum Exp Toxicol): Expert opinion: fomepizole may ameliorate the need for hemodialysis in methanol poisoning.

Marraffa J et al (Clin Toxicol): Oral administration of fomepizole produces similar blood levels as identical intravenous dose.


Hovda KE et al (Clin Toxicol): Extremely slow formate elimination in severe methanol poisoning: a fatal case report.

Paasma R et al (Clin Toxicol): Methanol mass poisoning in Estonia: outbreak in 154 patients.


Hunderi OH et al: Use of the osmolal gap to guide the start and duration of dialysis in methanol poisoning.


Hantson P et al (Hum Exp Toxicol): Formate kinetics in methanol poisoning.

Hovda KE et al (Clin Nephrol): Fomepizole may change indication for hemodialysis in methanol poisoning: prospective study in seven cases.

Hovda KE et al (J Anal Toxicol): Increased serum formate in the diagnosis of methanol poisoning.

Hovda KE et al (Clin Toxicol): Methanol and formate kinetics during treatment with fomepizole.

Hovda KE et al (J Intern Med): Methanol outbreak in Norway 2002-2004: epidemiology, clinical features and prognostic signs.

Megarbane B et al (Intensive Care Med): Current recommendations for treatment of severe toxic alcohol poisonings.


Hovda KE et al (Intensive Care Med): Anion and osmolal gaps in the diagnosis of methanol poisoning: clinical study in 28 patients.


Server A et al (Acta Radiol): Conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI in the evaluation of methanol poisoning.


Hantson P et al (Eur J Emerg Med): Ethanol therapy for methanol poisoning: duration and problems.

Kerns W 2nd et al (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol): Formate kinetics in methanol poisoning.


Megarbane B et al (Intensive Care Med): Treatment of acute methanol poisoning with fomepizole. 


Hantson P et al (Eur J Emerg Med): Survival with extremely high blood methanol concentration.

Hantson P et al (Transplant Proc): Fatal methanol poisoning and organ donation: experience with seven cases in a single center.


Burns MJ et al (Ann Emerg Med): Treatment of methanol poisoning with intravenous 4-methylpyrazole.


Aabakken L et al (Hum Exp Toxicol): Osmolal and anion gaps in patients admitted to an emergency medical department.


Hoffman RS et al (J Toxicol Clin Toxicol): Osmol gaps revisited: normal values and limitations. 


Jacobsen D et al (J Emerg Med): Effects of 4-methylpyrazole, methanol/ethylene glycol antidote, in healthy humans. 


Jacobsen D et al (Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp): Methanol and formate kinetics in late diagnosed methanol intoxication. 


Jacobsen D et al (Med Toxicol): Methanol and ethylene glycol poisonings. Mechanism of toxicity, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment. 


Jacobsen D et al (Scand J Clin Lab Invest): Pulmonary excretion of methanol in man.

Jacobsen D et al (Acta Med Scand): Formate concentrations in plasma from patients poisoned with methanol.

Jacobsen D et al (Acta Med Scand): Toxicokinetics of formate during hemodialysis. 


Jacobsen D et al (Acta Med Scand): Studies on methanol poisoning. 

External links

The following external links provide clinical advice of present methods employed to detect methanol poisoning. These are provided for information only. Orphan Diagnostics is not responsible for any incorrect diagnosis caused by following the advice below. Please consult with your local clinician or consult the various organizations referenced in the links provided for further details.


English: Could it be methanol poisoning?

Indonesian: Mungkinkah keracunan Metanol?

Russian: Возможно, это отравление метанолом?


Methanol Poisoning at a glance

  • a simplified protocol to support diagnostics- and treatment processes